Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Nigeria (2023)

Vaccine-preventable disease is a term used to describe diseases that are preventable by taking a vaccination. A vaccine is an anti-disease substance that increases the immunity of the body. A vaccine can help prevent a person from contracting the disease. In Nigeria, the majority of vaccines are administered to children a few months or weeks after their birth. This helps keep them healthy.


In most cases, vaccine-preventable diseases result in death. Some of these diseases are not treated at all. In some cases, a vaccine cannot prevent a disease. However, in these situations, it is possible to cure or treat the illness.

Today’s article will focus on some diseases that can be prevented by vaccination in Nigeria.

Top 5 Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Nigeria

Here are five vaccine preventable diseases in Nigeria today.

1. Polio

Poliomyelitis is also called polio and it affects children. The poliovirus is responsible for the paralysis of the brainstem and spinal cord. This can be fatal in severe cases.

It is common for the disease to be transmitted through contact with the faecal matter. The virus enters via the mouth or nose, then travels to the digestive tract, where it enters the bloodstream.

Nigeria will be the last African nation to be declared Polio-free in 2020. The increased efforts to promote vaccinations were responsible for this. Children under the age of 5 had to receive vaccines, sometimes just a few weeks after birth.

2. Measles

The measles is a deadly disease that affects children. The disease is spread by contact with a person who has the illness, usually through droplets or snot from their mouth or nose.

The measles is a highly contagious disease. It can affect up to 90% of those who come into contact with an infected individual.

Within 7-14 days of contracting the disease, symptoms may begin to appear. Symptoms include a fever, a runny or stuffy nose, rashes, and a sore throat.

Nigeria reported 6,700 measles cases in 2021. 87 people died.

It can be prevented with a vaccine that is administered to children as young as three years old. The vaccine can be given to older children and adults if they have a high risk of contracting this disease. In Nigeria, a study revealed that many children have not received the measles vaccine.

3. Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B affects the liver and can lead to cancer or even death. The Hepatitis Virus (HPV) is responsible for the disease. It can be passed from mother to baby, during pregnancy and through unprotected sexual contact. The risk of infection is also increased by sharing needles and blades as well as using non-sterilised items like tattoo pens or syringes.

Symptoms of the disease include nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, and jaundice. There is currently no treatment available for the virus. However, there is a vaccine that is effective.

4. Yellow Fever

The yellow fever virus is spread by the Aedes Aegypti, which is found in Nigeria.

The disease’s name, jaundice, is a result of the extreme yellowing of skin. The disease can also cause nausea, headaches, dizziness and loss of appetite.

Although there is no cure for this disease, a vaccine that is commonly given at birth can provide lifelong protection.

Before travelling, travellers to Nigeria are advised to be vaccinated to protect them from disease. Find out what other vaccines you should take before traveling to Nigeria.

5. Meningitis

Meningitis, also known as meningitis, is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. Meningitis is a potentially life-threatening condition because the inflammation is so close to the brain and the spinal cord.

Meningitis has been identified as one of Nigeria’s most common diseases. Meningitis is a common disease in Nigeria. Its incidence increases during the dry seasons.

Meningitis, however, is a vaccine-preventable disease in Nigeria. Meningococcal vaccination is used to protect against infection by Neisseria Meningitidis. Children and adults are encouraged to take the vaccine by the CDC.

  • COVID-19
  • Diphtheria
  • Mumps
  • Typhoid fever
  • Rubella
  • Pertussis (whooping cough)
  • Tetanus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Malaria
  • Rabies
  • Dengue fever
  • Cholera
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis E
  • Human papillomavirus infection.


I am a pro health activist and researcher.

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